B.Sc PART-I CHEMISTRY(HONOURS)

Code: PPU-D-I (H)-CHEM-A

Paper-IA (Physical Chemistry)

Full Marks : 100

Duration : 3 hours

INSTRUCTIONS: Ten questions shall be asked. Each question will carry equal marks. First question is compulsory and shall consist of Ten Multiple Choice Questions. The rest questions will be of subjective type which may include long questions and short notes.

GROUP-A: THE STATES OF MATTER

1. Gaseous State: Kinetic theory of gases, derivation or kinetic gas equation, deduction of gas laws, calculation of gas constant and kinetic energy. Maxwell Boltzmann distribution law of velocities (derivation not needed) and energy, distribution curves at different temperatures, calculation of most probable; average and root mean square velocities of molecules.
Real gases, compressibility factor, derivation from ideality, various equations of state for real gases with special emphasis on Van der Waals equation of state and its application to the calculation of Boyle’s temperature.
2. Liquid State: Qualitative treatment of the structure of the liquid state including various approaches to the structure of liquids, radial distribution function, physical properties of liquids (molar volume, vapour pressure, surface tension, parachor).
3. Solid State: Types of solid, crystal forces, law of constancy of angles, seven crystal systems, law of rational indices, labelling the planes, Miller indices, qualitative idea of point and space groups, elementary idea of symmetry, symmetry elements.
4. Colloidal State: Definitions, classification, preparation of colloidal solution and their purification, properties of colloids, protection of colloids, application of colloids.

GROUP-B: EQUILIBRIUM

1. Chemical Equilibrium: Reversible and irreversible reaction, statement of law of mass action and its kinetic derivation , equilibrium constant for homogeneous and heterogeneous reaction, relationship between Kc, Kp and Kx . Le Chatelier’s Principle and its applications.
2. (a) The First in Action: Thermochemistry : Heats of chemical reactions, reaction enthalpy, standard enthalpy changes, Hess’s Law, Kirchoff’s law, Relation between enthalpy H and internal energy U, bond energies and their determination, enthalpies of ions in solutions.
(b) Thermodynamics I: Thermodynamic terms: systems, extensive and intensive properties, thermodynamic process, state functions and exact differentials.
3. Thermodynamics II: Work done in a system, internal energy, first law of thermodynamics, heat capacities, relation between Cp and Cv, isothermal and adiabatic processes for ideal gas, relation between P-V, V-T and P-T for ideal gas, adiabatic processes for ideal gas, adiabatic reversible expansion of ideal gas, Elementary idea of entropy and Clausius inequality.
4. Ionic Equilibrium: Ionic product of water, pH, pKa , pKb and pKh buffer solution, buffer index , buffer capacity, buffer range, pH of buffer solution, idea of role of buffer solutions in day to day life, Dissociation constant of acids and bases, solubility product and its applications in salt analysis, Common effect, HSAB concept.

GROUP-C: CHANGES

1. Chemical Kinetics: Rate of reaction, order and molecularity, expression for specific rate constant of first order reaction, half life period, unit, experimental determination of order or reaction.
2. Dilute Solutions and Changes of State-I: Colligative properties, Osmosis, Osmotic pressure and its experimental determination, van’t Hoff factor, vapour pressure, Roult’s Law of lowering of vapour pressure.
Experimental determination of relative lowering of vapour pressure and molecular weight determination, relation between osmotic pressure and lowering of vapour pressure.
3. Dilute Solutions and Changes of States-II: Elevation of boiling point of solution, depression of freezing point of solutions, experimental determination of colligative properties, abnormal colligative properties of solutions.
4. Processes at Solid Surface: Elementary idea of crystal growths, Adsorption: Physisorption and chemisorption, chemisorbed species. Idea of catalytic activity at surfaces, anti catalytic processes such as hydrogenation, oxidation, cracking and reforming.

SYLLABUS FOR B.SC PART-1 CHEMISTRY (HONOURS)

PAPER-I

PAPER-IB – (Inorganic Chemistry)

GROUP-A: FOUNDATION

1.Atomic Structure:
(a) Features of H-spectra and Bohr’s interpretation of H-spectra and limitation, refinement of Bohr theory. Bohr-Sommerfeld theory.
(b) Shapes of orbitals and their labellings, idea of quantum numbers, Pauli’s exclusion principle, Hund’s rules, Aufbau principle, Electronic configuration of elements.

2.Bonding Models in Inorganic Chemistry
(a) Ionic bond: Energetics involved in ionic bond formation. Born Haber cycle, Radius ratio rule, different types of crystal lattice, Fajan’s rule, I.P., Inert pair effect.
(b) Covalent Bond: Exceptions to the octet rule, idea of orbital overlap, hybridization of orbitals.
(c) Van der Waal’s forces, H-bonding.
3. (a) Nomenclature of lnorganic Compounds: Acquaintance with IUPAC use of multiplying affixes, enclosing marks, numbers and letters. Names for ions and radicals, isopoly and heteropoly anions.
(b) Acid-Base Chemistry: Bronsted-Lowry definition, solvent system definition, Lowers concept, aqua acids, periodic trends in aqua acid strength, HSAB concept.
4. Periodicity: Pauli’s exclusion principle and periodic table. Fundamental trends of atomic/ionic radii, ionization energy, electron affinity, electronegativity, hardness and softness, first and second row anomalies, Idea of ct-orbital participation by non-metals and its influence on their reactivity. Periodic anomalies of non-metals and post transition metals.

GROUP-B SYSTEMATIC CHEMISTRY OF THE ELEMENTS

1.Hydrogen and hydrides: Position in P.T., isotopes of hydrogen, ortho and para hydrogen. Hydrides: ionic, covalent, metallic and intermediate. Hydrogen ion. H2O2: preparation, properties, structure and uses.
2.Principles of Metallurgy: (a) Idea of Mohs’ scale of hardness of minerals, Holme’s classification of metals into five groups, general methods of extraction their position in electrochemical series and extraction, Gibbs free energy.
(b) Principles of various concentration methods: Calcination, roasting and smelting, Role of carbon and other reducing agents. Electrolytic reduction, hydrometallurgy, methods of refining and purification, electrolytic, chromatographic, ion exchange solvent extraction, oxidative refinings. Zone refining, Kroll’s process, Van Arkel de Boer method, Mond’s process.
3. Chemistry of the following metals:(a) Li, Be, Ra (b) Sn, Pb.
4. Chemistry of halogens with reference of extraction, oxidation states and halides.

GROUP-C: MISCELLANEOUS TOPICS

1(a) Molecular Symmetry: An Introduction: Symmetry elements and symmetry operations, centre of symmetry, axis of symmetry and plane of symmetry (definitions).
(b) Elementary Magnetochemistry: Types of magnetic behaviours, paramagnetism, diamagnetism and ferromagnetism, dependence of paramagnetism on S & L.
2.Principles involved in the volumetric estimations of Ag+ ion, Cu++ ion and Ca++ ion.
3. Principles involved in the gravimetric estimation of Cu++ ion, Ni++ ion, Mg++ ion, Ba++ ion, SO4– ion.
4. Isotopes: Detection and separation.Tracer technique and applications, radiocarbon dating.

B.SC PARTS:CHEMISTRY (HONOURS)

PAPER-I

PAPER-1C (ORGANIC CHEMISTRY)

Full Marks:- 100

Duration: 3 hours

INSTRUCTIONS: Ten questions shall be asked. Each question will carry equal marks. First question is compulsory and shall consist of Ten Multiple Choice Questions. The rest questions will be of subjective type which may include long questions and short notes.

GROUP-A: FOUNDATION

1.Shapes and Structure of Organic Molecules: Hybridisation, Bond angle, bond length and bond energy. Idea of covalent bonds, shapes/structures of methane, ethane, acetylene and benzene molecules.
2.Nomenclature of organic compounds: Acquaintance with IUPAC nomenclature of aliphatic and aromatic compounds.
3.Introductory Organic Reaction Mechanism: Elementary idea of electronic distribution, inductive effect, electromeric effect and mesomeric effect, resonance, bond fission and fission products. Elementary idea of the reagents and types of reactions.
4.Elementary Stereochemistry: Brief idea of geometrical and optical isomerism.

GROUP-B DETAILED STUDY OF THE DIFFERENT CLASSES OF COMPOUNDS

1.(a) Alcohol: Monohydric, dihydric, trihydric and unsaturated alcohols.
(b) Aldehydes and ketones.
2.(a) Carboxylic acids: monocarboxylic acids and dicarboxylic acids.
(b) Organometallic compounds of Mg and Li.
3.(a) Amines and Urea: Classification, preparation, separation, distinction identification and estimation.
(b) Organosulphur compounds.
4.Aromaticity and Structure of Benzene: Mono substituted benzene derivatives, Orientation and directive influence of different groups in benzene.

GROUP-C: APPLICATION TECHNIQUES

1.Analytical Organic Chemistry I: Qualitative and quantitative estimation of C, H, N, S, P and halogens in organic compounds.
2.Analytical Organic Chemistry II: Molecular weight determination of organic acids by silver salt method and of organic bases by platinic chloride method.
3.Purification of Organic Compounds: Purification of organic compounds and criteria of purity, chromatography.
4.(a) Synthetic fibres and plastics.
(b) Soaps and detergents including chemistry of their actions.

B. Sc. Part – I: CHEMISTRY (Honours)

PRACTICAL

PAPER-I

Full Marks: 50

Duration : 3 hours

1.Volumetric analysis: 25

(a) Acidimetry and alkalimetry.
(b) Use of potassium permanganate; potassium dichromate and sodium
thiosulphate.

2. Detection of nitrogen, sulpher and halogen in organic compounds and identification of organic compounds containing one functional group including monosaccharides.
15

3. Note book and Viva Voce. 10

B.SC PART-I chemistry(subsidiary/general)

GROUP-A: PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY

Full Marks : – 75

Duration : 3 hours

INSTRUCTIONS: Ten questions shall be asked. Each question will carry equal marks. First question is compulsory and shall consist of Ten Multiple Choice Questions. The rest questions will be of subjective type which may include long questions and short notes.
1. The States: (a) Gaseous State: Kinetic theory of gases, derivation of kinetic gas equation, deduction of gas laws, calculation of gas constants and kinetic energy.
(b) Types solid, crystal forces, law of constancy of angles, seven crystal systems, law of rational indices, Bragg’s law, Lattice Energy, Born Haber Cycle. .
2.Thermochemistry: Heat of chemical reactions, reaction enthalpy, standard enthalpy changes, Hess Law, Kirchhoff’s Law, Bond energies and determination.
3.Ionic Equilibrium: Ionic product of water, pH, pKa , pKb, and pKw, buffer solution. Idea and role of buffer solutions in day-to-day life. Solubility product and its applications in salt analysis common ion effect. Electrolytic conductance, specific conductance, equivalent conductance and molar conductance.
4.(a) Chemical Kinetics: Rate of reaction, order and molecularity, expression for specific rate constant of first order reaction, half life period, unit.
(b) Colligativ Properties: Colligative properties, osmosis, osmotic pressure and its determination. Vapour pressure, Roult’s law of lowering of vapour pressure, relation between osmotic pressure and lowering of vapour pressure.

GROUP-B: INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

1. Atomic Structure and Bonding: Features of H-spectra and Bohr’s theory, shapes of orbitals and their labellings, idea of quantum, number Pauli’s exclusion Principle, Hund’s rulers, Aufbau principle Electronic configuration of elements.
Idea of ionic and covalent bonds, I.P., E.N. and E.A., Fajan’s rule
2. Chemistry of the following elements: Li, Sn, Fluorine, Chlorine, Iodine
3. Principle involved in the volumetric and gravimetric estimations of Cu++ and iron.
4. Isotopes: Brief idea of detection and separation, tracer techniques radiocarbon dating.

GROUP-C: ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

1. Structure and Mechanism: Hybridisation, bond angles bond length, idea of δ and π bonds, inductive effect, electrometric effect and mesomeric effect, bond fission and fusion products, elementary idea of reagents and type of reactions .
2. Nomenclature: Acquaintance with IUPAC nomenclature of aliphatic and aromatic compound.
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(a) Alcohols :monohydric, (b) Grignard’s reagent.
4. Idea of purification of compounds, criteria of purity, Chromatograph

CHEMISTRY(SUBSIDARY/ GENERAL)

PRACTICAL

Full Marks :- 25

Duration : 6 hours

GROUP-A:

INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

12 Marks

1 Volumetric Analysis: (a) Acidimetry and alkalimetry
(b) Use of potassium permanganate and potassium dichromate, iodometry.

GROUP-B:

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

8 Marks

2. Organic Detection: Detection of nitrogen, sulphur and halogens in organic compounds. Detection of the following functional group of Organic compounds:
(i) OH (Phenolic), (ii) CHO (iii) C = 0
(iv) COOH (v) NH3 and (vi) NO2 (aromatic)

3. Record of class work and viva-voce 5 Marks